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Сегодня вторник - 02 сентября 2014 года - 15:46
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  • Лексика по теме «Футбол»
    (русско-английский глоссарий)



    Игроки
    РУССКОЕ НАЗВАНИЕ
    ПЕРЕВОД
    игрок player
    вратарь / голкипер goal keeper
    защитник back
    полузащитник / хавбек halfback
    чистильщик sweeper
    нападающий / форвард forward
    центральный нападающий / центрфорвард centre forward
    левый нападающий left wing
    правый нападающий right wing
    плеймейкер playmaker
    игрок основного состава a player in the team
    запасной игрок substitute
    сидеть в запасе to be on the bench

    Игра
    РУССКОЕ НАЗВАНИЕ
    ПЕРЕВОД
    судья в поле / рефери referee
    главный судья main referee
    боковой / судья на линии / лайнсмен linesman
    свисток whistle
    начало игры the kick off
    первый тайм the first half
    перерыв half time
    второй тайм the second half
    добавленное время added time
    финальный свисток the final whistle
    мяч the ball
    ворота the goal
    штанга the goalpost
    перекладина the crossbar
    крестовина the top angle
    сетка the net
    мяч в сетке the ball is in the net
    центр поля the centre spot
    центральная линия the centre line
    штрафная площадка the penalty area
    вратарская the 6 yard box
    флажок the flag
    аут out
    мяч в ауте the ball is out
    мяч в игре the ball is in play
    вне игры / офсайд offside
    гол a goal
    забить гол to score a goal
    нет гола no goal
    пенальти / одиннадцатиметровый penalty kick
    бить пенальти to take a penalty
    бить штрафной to take a free kick
    свободный удар indirect free kick
    штрафной удар free kick
    удар от ворот a goal kick
    угловой удар a corner
    подать угловой to take a corner
    бросать из аута to throw in
    вбрасывание a throw in
    счёт the score
    победа victory
    поражение a defeat
    ничья a draw
    стенка a wall
    стенка из пяти человек a five-man wall
    рикошет a deflection
    сделать навес / навесить to bend the ball


    Мастерство игры
    РУССКОЕ НАЗВАНИЕ
    ПЕРЕВОД
    тактика tactics
    тренировка training
    разминка warming-up
    тренировочный процесс the training process
    техника technique
    техническое мастерстве technical skill
    дриблинг dribbling
    финт a dummy
    отбор мяча a tackle
    передача / пас a pass
    передать мяч / дать пас to pass
    играть персонально с to mark someone
    взвинтить темп игры to speed up the game
    прибавить скорости в игре to speed up the game
    снизить темп игры to slow down the game
    играть на контрактаках to play counterattacking football
    играть в открытый футбол to play open football
    играть на удержание счёта to close the game down
    играть в нападении to play attacking football
    играть в защите to play defensively


    Наказания и травмы
    РУССКОЕ НАЗВАНИЕ
    ПЕРЕВОД
    травма an injury
    серьёзная травма a serious injury
    лёгкая травма a slight injury
    замена a substitution
    нарушение правил a foul
    предупреждение a warning
    жёлтая карточка a yellow card
    красная карточка a red card
    удаление a sending off

    Удары
    РУССКОЕ НАЗВАНИЕ
    ПЕРЕВОД
    удар a kick
    прострел a centre
    простреливать to centre the ball
    удар головой a header
    играть головой to head the ball
    игра головой heading the ball
    играть рукой to handle the ball
    игра рукой handball
    принять мяч на грудь to chest the ball
    обработать мяч to keep the ball
    ударить щёчкой to kick with the inside of the foot
    ударить пыром / носком to toe the ball
    ударить пяткой to backheel
    ударить шведкой to kick with the outside of the foot


    Соревнования
    РУССКОЕ НАЗВАНИЕ
    ПЕРЕВОД
    команда team
    тренер coach
    сборная страны national team
    болельщик a fan
    болеть за to support
    чемпионат (России / Италии) по футболу the (Russian / Italian) football championship
    премьер лига the premier league
    первая лига the first league
    чемпионат мира / кубок мира the world championship / cup
    чемпионат / кубок Европы the European championship / cup


    Глоссарий на английском языке

    ENGLISH FOOTBALL VOCABULARY
    TERM
    EXPLANATION
    a match two teams playing against each other in a 90-minute game of football
    a pitch the area where footballers play a match
    a referee the person who makes sure that the players follow the rules. Normally wears a black shirt and shorts, and has a whistle
    a linesman (referee's assistant) the person whose main duty it is to indicate with a flag when the ball has gone out of play or when a player is offside
    a goalkeeper the player in goal who has to stop the ball from crossing the goal-line. The only player who is allowed to handle the ball during open play
    a defender a player who plays in the part of the football team which tries to prevent the other team from scoring goals, e.g. 'Kolo Toure is a defender and plays in defence for Arsenal and Ivory Coast'.
    a midfielder a midfielder - a player who plays mainly in the middle part of the pitch (or midfield), e.g. Michael Essien is a midfielder and plays in midfield for Chelsea and Ghana
    an attacker also called a forward; a player whose duty it is to score goals, e.g. Samuel Eto'o is an attacker and plays in attack for Barcelona and Cameroon
    a skipper the player who leads a team, also called the captain
    a substitute a player who sits on the bench ready to replace another team-mate on the pitch. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. the manager was not happy with his attacker and substituted him after 60 minutes
    a manager the person in charge of a team and responsible for training, new players and transfers. For example, Alex Ferguson is the manager of Manchester United
    a foul a violation of the rules. For example, if a player other than the goalkeeper handles the ball in the penalty box (or penalty area) it is a foul and a penalty is given to the other team
    a booking a yellow card shown to a player by the referee for a serious foul. Two bookings or yellow cards result in a red card or sending-off
    full-time the point of the game when the referee blows the final whistle and the match is over. Normally after 90 minutes and any added injury or stoppage time
    injury time also called stoppage time, added minutes at the end of the regular playing time at half-time or full-time. Entirely at the referee's discretion and normally indicated by an official on the sideline (or touchline)
    extra time if a match has no winner at full-time, 2 x 15 minutes of extra time may be played in some competitions
    offside in a position which is not allowed by the rules of the game, i.e. when an attacking player is closer to the opposing team's goal-line at the moment the ball is passed to him or her than the last defender apart from the goalkeeper
    the score the record of goals that indicates who is winning. The final score is the result that decides who has won the match . Can also be used as a verb, e.g. the attacker scored a beautiful goal
    to concede to allow a goal in, the opposite of scoring a goal. For example, Ghana conceded only four goals in the World Cup qualifying group 2
    a goal a successful attempt at scoring achieved by putting the ball over the goal line into the goal past the goalkeeper. For example, Gyan Asamoah has scored a beautiful goal for Ghana
    an own goal a goal scored accidentally by a member of the defending team that counts in favour of the attacking team
    the lead when a team scores first it is "in the lead", i.e. winning the match at the point of scoring. For example, Fabrice Akwa's early goal gave Angola the lead after 72 minutes but the final score was 1-1 (one all)
    an equaliser a goal that cancels out the opposing team's lead and leaves the match tied or drawn. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. Marouan Chamakh equalised for Morocco after 40 minutes and brought the score level
    to win a match in which a team is victorious and beats the other team. A win normally gives the winning team three points, the losing team does not get any points. More commonly used as a verb, e.g. Brazil won the World Cup in 2002
    a draw a match that ends in a tie, i.e. has no winner or loser. The teams get one point each for a draw. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. Congo drew 0-0 (nil all) with Senegal in June
    a defeat a match that is lost, the opposite of a win. For example, Sudan suffered a home defeat to Zambia in September 2002
    to knock out to eliminate another team from a competition. For example, in the last World Cup Brazil knocked out England in the quarter-finals
    a penalty shoot-out in a knock-out competition, a penalty shoot-out takes place if a match is a draw after full-time or extra-time. Five players from each team take a penalty each, and if the score is still level after that, one player from each team takes a penalty in turn, in order to decide who wins the match
    a goal difference If team A has scored four goals and team B one, the goal difference is three
    a head-to-head a way of deciding which team is ranked higher if two teams are level (or equal) on points. For example, if team A and B both have six points, but team A beat team B in the head-to-head game, team A will be ranked above team B
    a play-off an extra match to decide which of two or more teams should go through to the next round. For example, Australia beat Uruguay on penalties in a play-off to qualify for the World Cup 2006
    the away-goal rule in some competitions, e.g. the UEFA Champions' League, a rule that rewards teams for scoring away from home over two legs (or matches). For example, in 2005 AC Milan beat PSV Eindhoven 2-0 at home (in Milan) but lost 1-3 away in Holland. So both teams had scored three goals and conceded three goals, but because AC Milan had scored a goal away from home it went through to the Champions' League final on the away-goal rule
    to kick to hit something, or somebody, with your foot. In football, the players kick the ball.
    to shoot to kick the ball towards the net at one end of the pitch (the goal) in an attempt to score a goal
    the kick-off the first kick of the game when two players from the same team in the centre circle play the ball and start the match. Also the first kick after half-time or after a goal has been scored
    a goal-kick a kick taken from the 6-yard line by the defending team after the ball has been put over the goal line by the attacking team
    a free-kick the kick awarded to a team by the referee after a foul has been committed against it
    a penalty a free shot at goal from 12 yards (11 metres or the penalty spot) awarded by the referee to a team after a foul has been committed in the penalty area
    a corner a kick from the corner flag awarded to the attacking team when the ball has crossed the gaol-line (or byline) after last being touched by a player of the defending team
    a throw-in a throw is taken from the sideline (or touchline) after the ball has gone out of play. The only time a player can handle the ball without committing a foul
    a pass a kick of the ball from one player to another. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. the defender passed the ball to the midfielder
    a cross a pass from the side of the pitch into the penalty area in an attempt to find an attacker and score a goal. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. the defender crossed the ball into the penalty area
    a one-two a passing move in which player 1 passes the football to player 2, who immediately passes it back to player 1
    a header the "shot" that occurs when a player touches and guides the ball with his or her head. For example, El Hadji Djouf scored with a fine header. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. the defender headed the ball back to the goalkeeper
    a backheel a kick where the ball is hit with the heel (or the back) of the foot. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. Nwankwo Kanu back-heeled the ball to Thierry Henry
    to volley to kick a moving ball from the air before it hits the ground. Can also be used as a noun, e.g. Jay Jay Okocha's beautifully-struck volley beat the goalkeeper at the near post
    a clearance a defensive kick that is intended to put the ball out of danger, e.g. Peter Odemwingie's clearance went out of play for a throw-in
    one-touch football an often admiring reference to a style of football in which a team can pass the ball quickly from one player to another without the need to control it with more than one touch
    the long-ball game an often disapproving reference to a style of football in which a team prefers to play long balls in the hope that an attacking player will get them, flick them on or score
    keep possession to be able to keep the ball and prevent the opposing team from touching it. The opposite of "lose possession" or "give the ball away"
    they are dangerous on the counter-attack referring to a team that can switch quickly from defence to attack and score goals in that way
    put eleven men behind the ball referring to a team that defends with all the players and is not very interested in scoring goals. For example, many visiting teams put eleven men behind the ball and are happy with a 0-0 draw when they play Real Madrid at the Bernabeu stadium
    send the keeper the wrong way refers to the way in which a player can fool the goalkeeper and pretend to shoot at one side of the goal while the ball goes in another direction. This expression is used often during penalties
    a clinical finish referring to a well-placed, controlled shot from a scoring position that ends in a goal. For example, Tunisia's Hatem Trabelsi controlled the pass and scored with a clinical finish
    his/her first touch let him/her down this means a player was unable to control the ball (or pass) with his or her first touch and as a result lost precious time or even possession
    they are strong in the air referring to a team that has a lot of (tall) players who can head the ball very well. As a result, they are strong in the air, may prefer the long-ball game, and score a lot of goals with headers while not conceding any or many headed goals themselves
    they have a big physical presence referring to a team that has a lot of big and physically strong players and, as a result, prefers a very robust style of play. For example, Bolton Wanderers have a big physical presence and are a difficult team to beat in the Premiership
    the goalkeeper is quick off his/her line referring to a goalkeeper who is fast and makes quick (and normally correct) decisions as to when to leave the goal in order to prevent an attacking player from reaching a pass or cross
    that shot stung the goalkeeper's palms referring to a shot on goal that is so hard that the goalkeeper might well have felt pain when he/she stopped it with his/her hands
    a prolific goal scorer referring to a player, normally a striker, who scores or has scored a lot of goals. For example, Henrik Larsson is a prolific goal scorer for Sweden
    the foul earned him/her a suspension referring to a foul that is punished by a yellow or red card and results in the player being banned from playing in the next game(s). For example, the two-footed tackle earned the defender a suspension and he will miss the next game
    put it in the back of the net to score a goal, e.g. Nigeria and Middlesbrough striker Aiyegbeni Yakubu controlled the cross and calmly put it in the back of the net
    man on! shout during a football match to warn a team-mate that a player of the other team is right behind. Often a call to pass the ball quickly
    a nutmeg a trick or technique in which a player passes the ball through an opponent's legs and then collects it from the other side. Can also be used as a verb, e.g. the attacker nutmegged the defender
    bang it in the mixer! a shout to encourage a player to play a long ball into the penalty area (i.e. the "mixer") in the hope that an attacking player will get on the end of it and score
    we was robbed an expression to signal that a defeat was unjust, possibly due to an injustice committed by somebody else. For example, we was robbed by the ref (the referee)
    s/he's got a sweet left foot referring to a player who is very skilful at kicking the ball with her/his left foot (the majority of footballers play with their right foot)
    s/he pulled off a great save referring to a very strong, quick or acrobatic stop of a shot by the goalkeeper
    they hit the woodwork the crossbar or the post of the goal. This expression means a team kicked the ball against the crossbar or post and was very unlucky not to score
    they got stuck in referring to a team whose players showed a lot of determination and fought very hard during a match
    s/he ran the defence ragged referring to an attacking player who made the defence work very hard and made the defenders look uncomfortable or unprofessional
    s/he's got a lot of pace this player is very fast
    the goalkeeper made a howler this means the goalkeeper made a very basic mistake (and probably let in a goal)
    to switch play to change direction of play and pass the ball from one side of the pitch to the other. For example, she switched play from left to right wing (the left-hand side of the pitch to the right-hand-side)
    s/he made a nuisance of herself/himself referring to a player, normally a striker, who fought very hard and used his physical presence to put the defenders under pressure and forced them to make mistakes
    it's a game of two halves an expression referring to the fact that a football match can change unexpectedly over 90 minutes, and especially between the first half and second half of the match



    Источник: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/vocabulary/football.shtml


    Прочитайте и переведите текст.


    Football (Soccer)


    Football is one of the world's most popular games. It is played in nearly every country, by everyone from kids in vacant lots and back streets to professional players in giant stadiums. Professional football is watched by billions of people all over the world, and is probably the world's most popular spectator sport.


    History


    The earliest known form of the game was developed in China around 500 B.C. It was known as cuju ('kick-ball') and was played with a leather ball. The object was to kick the ball into a net stretched between two goal-posts. By 800 A.D. there was a well-organized professional league in China, and similar games were also being played in Korea and Japan.


    The earliest form of the game that we know of in Europe was played in England around 1100 A.D. It was played between big teams, sometimes whole villages, on a large field, and the ball could be thrown, kicked, or carried towards the opponent's goal. There were very few rules and games were often wild and rough. The game was repeatedly banned by the authorities because of the violence and injuries it caused.


    The modern game first developed in England in the 19th century. The Football Association was set up in 1863 and the 'Laws of the Game' were drawn up in the same year. In 1882 the International Football Association Board (IFAB) was formed, and this organization still oversees the rules of the game. Then FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association) was founded in 1904 to run international competitions. FIFA still runs the World Cup, as well as regional competitions such as the European and Asian Cups.


    How the Game Works


    The modern game is played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. Players pass the ball to each other by kicking or heading it, with the aim being to score goals by getting the ball into the opponent's goal. The game lasts for two 45-minute halves, and the team scoring the most goals wins. Draws are common, but if a winner has to be found, a game can go into extra time. If the score is still tied after thirty minutes of extra time, a 'penalty shootout' can decide the winner.


    In general play, the goalkeeper is the only player who can touch the ball with the hands or arms. All the other players can kick or head the ball only. Players can tackle an opponent in order to get the ball from them, but must do so without pushing or tripping the player. Pushing and tripping, along with other illegal actions such as 'handball' and 'offside', are fouls that can be penalized with a free kick. If a foul is committed in the penalty area near either goal, the referee can award a penalty kick, meaning a player can have a free shot at goal, with only the goalkeeper being allowed to try to block it. If a player commits a more serious offence, such as dangerous play, the referee can issue a yellow card as a warning, or issue a red card, in which case the player is sent off and cannot be replaced by a substitute. Teams are normally allowed three substitutes, which can be used to replace players because of injury, or for tactical reasons.


    Источник: http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/sports-football.htm









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