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Labor Day in the USA
Labor Day is a United States federal holiday observed on the first Monday in September, that is dedicated to the social and economic achievements of American workers. It constitutes a yearly (ежегодный, годовой) national tribute to the contributions workers have made to the strength, prosperity (процветание), and well-being of the country.
The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City, in accordance with (в соответствии с, согласно) the plans of the Central Labor Union. The Central Labor Union held its second Labor Day holiday just a year later, on September 5, 1883.
In 1884 the first Monday in September was selected as the holiday, as originally proposed, and the Central Labor Union urged similar organizations in other cities to follow the example of New York and celebrate a "workingmen's holiday" on that date. The idea spread with the growth of labor organizations, and in 1885 Labor Day was celebrated in many industrial centers of the country.
The form that the observance and celebration of Labor Day should take was outlined in the first proposal of the holiday — a street parade to exhibit (проявлять, показывать) to the public "the strength and esprit de corps (честь мундира, корпоративный дух) of the trade and labor organizations" of the community, followed by a festival for the recreation and amusement of the workers and their families. This became the pattern for the celebrations of Labor Day. Speeches by prominent men and women were introduced later, as more emphasis was placed upon the economic and civic significance of the holiday. Still later, by a resolution of the American Federation of Labor convention of 1909, the Sunday preceding Labor Day was adopted as Labor Sunday and dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement.
The character of the Labor Day celebration has undergone (подвергся, претерпел (изменения)) a change in recent years, especially in large industrial centers where mass displays and huge parades have proved a problem. This change, however, is more a shift in emphasis and medium of expression. Labor Day addresses by leading union officials, industrialists (промышленники), educators, clerics and government officials are given wide coverage in newspapers, radio, and television.
The vital force of labor added materially to the highest standard of living and the greatest production the world has ever known and has brought us closer to the realization of our traditional ideals of economic and political democracy. It is appropriate, therefore, that the nation pay tribute on Labor Day to the creator of so much of the nation's strength, freedom, and leadership — the American worker.
To take advantage of large numbers of potential customers free to shop, Labor Day has become an important sale weekend for many retailers (розничные торговцы, магазины, торгующие в розницу) in the United States. Some retailers claim it is one of the largest sale dates of the year, second only to the Christmas season's Black Friday.
Ironically, because of the importance of the sale weekend, some of those who are employed in the retail sector not only work on Labor Day, but work longer hours. More Americans work in the retail industry than any other, with retail employment making up 24% of all jobs in the United States. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that of those employed in the retail sector, only 3% are members of a Labor Union (=trade union - профсоюз).