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Английские фразовые глаголы с объяснением их значений (на английском языке) и примерами употребления






Фразовый глагол (Phrasal Verb) – представляет собой сочетание «простого» глагола (состоящего из одного слова) и предлога (реже двух) или наречия, представляющее единую семантическую и синтаксическую единицу.


Представляя собой идиому, фразовый глагол не может быть переведен дословно, хотя в редких случаях дословный перевод может помочь приблизительно понять суть выражения. Некоторые фразовые глаголы имеют несколько значений, одни из которых идиоматичны, другие, напротив, могут быть легко переведены дословным переводом составляющих. Практически всегда у фразового глагола имеется один или несколько синонимов среди обычных глаголов.


Стоит обратить внимание на то, что среди фразовых глаголов есть делимые (separable) и неделимые (inseparable) конструкции. Первые могут разделяться другим словом, обычно дополнением или обстоятельством (глагол + дополнение + предлог). Неделимые фразовые глаголы делить нельзя и любые дополнения, определения или другие слова должны идти либо перед, либо после них, как в случае с обычными глаголами.


Как и обычные, фразовые глаголы могут быть переходными (могут иметь прямое дополнение в винительном падеже без предлога) и непереходными (no object, не могут иметь прямое дополнение в винительном падеже без предлога).


 

 Phrasal 
 Verb

Meaning

Example

A

abide by

respect or obey. (the law, a decision, a rule)

If you want to stay at this school, you must abide by the rules.

 

account for

explain, give a reason

I hope you can account for the money you spent!

 

add up

make sense, seem reasonable

Her story just doesn't add up.

 

agree with

have the same opinion as somebody else.

I agree with you. I think she deserves the award too.

 

allow for

take into consideration,
 include in a calculation

You'd better leave early to allow for traffic jams.

 

answer back

reply rudely

Don't answer back your mother!

 

apply for

make a formal request for something
 (job, permit, loan etc.)

He applied for the job he saw advertised in the newspaper.

 

avail (oneself) of

take advantage of something (an opportunity)

When the company is privatized, you should avail yourself of
 
the opportunity and buy some shares.

 

B

back away

move backwards, in fear or dislike

When he saw the dog, he backed away.

 

back down

withdraw,  concede defeat

Local authorities backed down on their plans to demolish the building.

 

back up

1) give support or encouragement
2) make a copy of (file, program, etc.)

1) If I tell the boss we've got too much work, will you back me up?
 2) It is recommended to back up all files in a secure location.

 

bank on

base your hopes on someone/something

Don't forget the date. I'm banking on your help.

 

beef up

improve, make more substantial

He beefed up his presentation with diagrams and statistics.

 

black out

faint, lose consciousness

When he fell off the horse he blacked out.

 

block off

Separate using a barrier.

The area was blocked off during the demonstration.

 

blow up

1) explode;
2) be destroyed by an explosion

1) The terrorists said the bomb would blow up at 9 o'clock.
 2) The car blew up but luckily there was nobody in it.

 

boil down to

be summarized as

The problem boils down to a lack of money.

 

boot up

start a computer by loading an
 operating system or program.

Just give my a few minutes to boot up the computer.

 

break away

escape from captivity

A few horses broke away from the paddock.

 

break down

1) go out of order, cease to function
2) lose control of one's emotions

1) John's car broke down so he had to take the bus.
 2) The parents broke down when they heard the bad news.


 

break into

enter by force

Burglars broke into the house around midnight.

 

break out

start suddenly

Rioting broke out as a result of the strike.

 

break out of

escape from a place by force

Three prisoners broke out of jail.

 

break up

come to an end (marriage, relationship)

After her marriage broke up, Emma went to live in London.

 

bring up

raise (a child)

She stopped working in order to bring up her children.

 

brush up on

improve, refresh one's knowledge of something

Mary had to brush up on her Spanish before going to South America.

 

bump into

meet by accident or unexpectedly

Pedro bumped into his English teacher at the supermarket.

 

burn out

1) stop (something) working
2) become exhausted from over-working

1) The fuse has burnt out.
2) Tom will burn himself out if he doesn't slow down.

 

butt in (on sthg)

interrupt impolitely

It's rude to butt in on a conversation like that!



C

call back

return a phone call

I'll call you back as soon as possible.

 

call off

cancel

The meeting was called off because of the strike.

 

call on/upon sby

formally invite or request

I now call upon the President to address the assembly.

 

calm down

become more relaxed, less angry or upset

He was angry at first but he eventually calmed down.

 

carry on

continue

He carried on gardening in spite of the rain.

 

carry out

1) do something as specified
    (a plan, an order, a threat)
2) perform or conduct (test, experiment)

1) The plan was carried out to perfection.
2) Tests are carried out to determine the efficiency of a new drug.

 

carry over

postpone until later

As regards holidays, can you carry over any days from one year
 to the next?

 

check in

register at a hotel or airport

For security reasons you have to check in two hours before your flight.

 

check out

1) pay one's bill and leave (a hotel)
2) investigate

1) Is Mr. Blair still at the hotel?  No, he checked out this morning.
 2) I don't know if the address is still valid. I'll check it out.

 

clam up

refuse to speak

When the teacher arrived she clammed up.

 

clamp down on

act strictly to prevent something

The government has decided to clamp down on smoking in public places.

 

close down

stop operating (company, restaurant, cinema).

When the factory closed down, the employees lost their jobs.

 

come across

1) find by chance
2) appear, seem, make an impression

1) Julie came across some photographs of her grandparents in the attic.
2) The candidate came across as a dynamic person during the interview.

 

come forward

present oneself

The police have asked any witnesses to come forward.

 

come up against

be faced with or opposed by

The project came up against a lot of criticism.

 

conk out

1) stop working
2) stop or fall asleep (from exhaustion)

1) The car conked out on the motorway.
 2) He was so exhausted, he conked out in front of the TV.

 

count on

rely or depend on (for help)

I'm counting on the taxi driver to find the theatre.

 

cross out

remove by drawing a line through

In some exercises, you are asked to cross out the incorrect word.

 

cut down on

reduce in number or size

The doctor told him to cut down on cigarettes.

 

cut out

1) remove using scissors
2) stop doing something

1) She cut out a picture in a magazine.
 2) I'm going to cut out eating between meals.

 

D

deal with

handle, take care of  (problem, situation)

The manager is good at dealing with difficult customers.

 

die down

calm down, become less strong

When the applause died down, she started to sing.

 

do without

manage without

The shops are closed so we'll have to do without sugar.

 

drag on

last longer than expected

We expected a short speech but it dragged on and on!

 

draw up

write (contract, agreement, document)

An agreement was drawn up and signed by the two parties.

 

dress up

1) wear elegant clothes
2) disguise oneself

1) Do people dress up to go to the opera in your country?
 2) Children love to dress up at Halloween.

 

drop in

visit, usually on the way somewhere

I sometimes drop in to see my grandparents on my way home from school.

 

drop off

1) deliver someone or something
2) fall asleep

1) I'll drop you off at the bus stop if you like.
 2) Granddad often drops off in front of the TV.

 

drop out

leave school without finishing

She decided to go to art school then dropped out after the first term.

E

ease off

reduce, become less severe or slow down
 (pain, traffic, work)

After Christmas the workload generally eases off.

 

end in

finish in a certain way; result in

Their marriage ended in divorce.

 

end up

finally reach a state, place or action

If he continues his misconduct he'll end up in prison.

 

even out

1) eliminate differences of opinion.
2) become level or regular

1) After a long discussion they managed to even out their differences.
 2) The road was evened out  to make it safer.

 

F

fall through

fail; doesn't happen

Our planned boat trip fell through because of the storm.

 

figure out

understand, find the answer

I'm trying to figure out how to assemble the bookshelves.

 

fill out

complete (a form/an application)

Please fill out the enclosed form and return it as soon as possible.

 

find out

discover or obtain information

I'm going to call the cinema to find out what time the film starts.

 

focus on

concentrate on something

The advertising campaign will focus on the quality of the product.

 

figure out

understand; find a solution

We'll have to figure out a way to deliver the goods faster.

 

G

get along (with)

be on good terms; work well with

I get along (well) with my mother-in-law.

 

get at

imply

What exactly are you trying to get at?

 

get away

escape

The robbers got away in a black car.

 

get by

manage to cope or to survive

It's difficult to get by on a low salary.

 

get in

enter

How did the burglar get in?

 

get into (+noun)

enter

How did the burglar get into the house?

 

get off

1) leave (bus, train, plane)
2) remove

1) You should get off the bus at Trafalgar Square.
 2) She can't get the stain off her sweater.

 

get on

board (bus, train, plane)

You can pay when you get on the bus.

 

get on with (something)

continue to do; make progress

Be quiet and get on with your homework.

 

get on (well) with (somebody)

have a good relationship with

I get on very well with my colleagues.

 

get out

leave

How did he get out?

 

get out of(+noun)

leave

How did he get out of the house?

 

get out of

avoid doing something

Some husbands manage to get out of doing any housework.

 

get over

recover from (illness, disappointment)

My grandmother had pneumonia but she got over it.

 

get rid of

eliminate

It's difficult to get rid of old habits.

 

get together

meet each other

Let's get together for lunch on day.

 

get up

rise, leave bed

I usually get up at 7 o'clock.

 

give up

stop doing something

Sarah gave up smoking 5 years ago.

 

go through

experience

Pete went through a lot of pain after the accident.

 

grow up

spend one's childhood; develop; become an adult

He grew up in a small village in the mountains.

H

hand in

submit (report, homework)

All application forms must be handed in before the end of the month.

 

hand out

distribute

Samples will be handed out at the end of the demonstration.

 

hang out

spend time in a particular place,
 or with a group of friends

Where does he hang out these days?
 Who does he hang out with?

 

hang up

end a phone conversation

"Don't hang up. I haven't finished yet."

 

hit at

aim a blow at

He hit at the wasp with the newspaper.

 

hit back

retaliate; reply to an attack

When he was attacked by the others, the boy hit back.

 

hit on/upon

find unexpectedly or by inspiration

She hit upon an idea for her new collection.

 

hold on

-wait
 -grip tightly

- 'Hold on please.  I'll put you through to Mr. Brown."
- She held on to the railing as she crossed the bridge.

 

hurry up

be quick, act speedily

Hurry up! We'll miss the bus.

 

I

iron out

resolve by discussion, eliminate differences

The meeting tomorrow will be an opportunity to iron out difficulties.

 

J

join in

participate

She was too shy to join in the game.

 

join up

-engage in, become a member of
- meet and unite with

- John was in the Army and  Tom joined up as soon as he left school.
- The two groups of tourists joined up at the hotel.

 

jot down

take quick notes

I jotted down the address while watching the programme on TV.

K

keep on

continue doing something

It told him to be quiet but he kept on making noise.

 

keep up with

stay at the same level as someone or
 something

Bill walks so fast it's difficult to keep up with him.

 

kick off

begin, start

The football match kicked off at 3 o'clock.

 

L

leave out

omit, not mention

The child's name was left out of the report.

 

let down

disappoint

You promised to come to the party, so don't let me down!

 

look after

take care of

A babysitter looks after the children when they go out.

 

look ahead

think of the future

It's time to forget the past and look ahead.

 

look down on

consider as inferior

He tends to look down on anyone who is not successful.

 

look on

be a spectator at an event

Billy didn't take part in the fight.  He just looked on.

 

look for

try to find something

Jane went to the shops to look for a pair of shoes.

 

look forward to

await or anticipate with pleasure

I look forward to seeing you soon.

 

look up to

admire

He was a wonderful teacher and many students looked up to him.

 

M

make fun of

laugh at/ make jokes about

The old lady dresses so strangely that the kids make fun of her.

 

make up

invent (excuse, story)

Some employees make up excuses when they arrive late for work.

 

mix up

mistake one thing or person for another

I don't know my neighbours' names yet.  I keep mixing them up.

 

move in

arrive in a new home or office

You've bought a new house? When are you moving in?.

 

move out

leave your home/office for another one.

My neighbour is leaving.  He's moving out next Saturday.

N

nod off

fall asleep

My grandfather often nods off in front of the television.

 

note down

write something

I'll call the station and note down the departure times.

 

O

opt out

leave a system or decide not to participate

I enjoy tennis but I'm so busy I had to opt out of the tournament.

 

own up

admit or confess something

The boy owned up.  He said he kicked the ball through the window.

 

P

pass away

die

The old lady passed away peacefully.

 

pass out

faint

She passed out when she heard the bad news.

 

pay back

reimburse

I'll lend you 20€ provided you pay me back before the end of the week.

 

put off

postpone, arrange a later date

The meeting was put off because of the strike.

 

put on

turn on, switch on

Could you put on the light please?

 

put out

extinguish

It took a long time to put out the fire.

 

put up

accommodate, give somebody a bed

We can put you up if you'd like to come for a week-end.

 

pick up

collect somebody

I'll pick you up at the station when you arrive.

 

point out

indicate/direct attention to something

She pointed out the mistake.

 

R

rely on

count on, depend on, trust

Don't worry.  You can rely on me.  I can keep a secret.

 

rule out

eliminate

The police ruled out political motives.

 

run away

escape from a place or suddenly leave

He ran away from home at the age of fourteen.

 

run into

meet by accident or unexpectedly (also: bump into)

Sophie ran into Maria at the shopping centre.

 

run out of

have no more of something.

What a nuisance!  We've run out of coffee.

 

S

set off

start a journey;

Early Saturday morning we set off for the ski slopes .

 

set up

start a business

She set up her own company 10 years ago.

 

shop around

compare prices

It's always wise to shop around before buying anything.

 

show off

brag or want to be admired

There's David showing off in his new sports car!

 

show up

appear/arrive

We expected David to come but he didn't show up.

 

shut up
 (impolite)              

be silent, stop talking

Oh shut up, you idiot!

 

sit down

take a seat

Please come in and sit down.

 

stand up

rise from a sitting position

The pupils stood up when the headmaster arrived.

 

stick up for

defend

It's important to stick up for one's principles.

T

take after

resemble, in appearance or character

Jamie really takes after his dad.

 

take care of

look after

I'll take care of your plants while you're away.

 

take off

leave the ground

The plane took off at 6 a.m.

 

take on

hire or engage staff

Business is good so the company is taking on extra staff.

 

take out

remove; extract

She took out a pen to note the address.

 

tell off

reprimand/criticize severely

The teacher told her off for not doing her homework.

 

think over

consider

I'll have to think over the proposal before I decide.

 

try on

wear something to see if it suits or fits

I'm not sure about the size.  Can I try it on?

turn down

refuse

I couldn't turn down an offer like that!

U

use up

finish a product (so that there's none left)

The kids have used up all the toothpaste.

 

V

vouch for

express confidence in, or guarantee something

You can give the keys to Andy.  I can vouch for him.

 

W

watch out

be careful

Watch out! There's a car coming.

 

wear out

1) become unusable
 2) become very tired

1) Julie wore out her shoes visiting the city.
 2) At the end of the day Julie was worn out.

 

work out

1) do physical exercise
 2) find a solution or calculate something

1) I work out twice a week at the gym club.
 2) It's expensive but I haven't worked out the exact cost yet.

 

wipe off

clean (board, table).

The teacher asked Lee to wipe off the board.


Источник: www.learn-english-today.com




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Грамматические упражнения

  • Упражнения по теме "Существительное"
  • Упражнения по теме "Артикль"
  • Упражнения по теме "Местоимение"
  • Упражнения по теме "Числительное"
  • Упражнения по теме "Прилагательное"
  • Упражнения по теме "Present Simple"
  • Упражнения по теме "Present Simple или Present Continuous"
  • Упражнения по теме "Past Simple"
  • Упражнения по теме "Past Continuous"
  • Упражнения по теме "Future Simple"
  • Упражнения по теме "Future Simple или Present Simple"
  • Упражнения по теме "Видовременные формы глагола"
  • Упражнения по теме "Вспомогательные глаголы"
  • Упражнения по теме "Модальные глаголы"
  • Упражнения по теме "Инфинитив и герундий"
  • Упражнения по теме "Прямая и косвенная речь, согласование времен"
  • Грамматика

  • Английский алфавит
  • Словообразование
  • Транскрипция
  • Правила чтения
  • Имя существительное
  • Притяжательный падеж существительного
  • Существительное в функции определения
  • Множественное число существительных
  • Артикль
  • Неопределенный артикль
  • Определенный артикль
  • Отсутствие артикля
  • Местоимение
  • Личные и притяжательные местоимения
  • Местоимения some, any
  • Местоимения little, few, much, many
  • Местоимение all
  • Местоимение both
  • Местоимения either и neither
  • Местоимения each и every
  • Местоимение other
  • Местоимение one
  • Различные типы местоимений
  • Имя числительное
  • Обозначение дат
  • Имя прилагательное
  • Степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий
  • Глагол
  • Личные и неличные формы глагола
  • Типы глаголов в английском языке
  • Наклонение глагола
  • Переходные и непереходные глаголы
  • Неправильные глаголы (таблица)
  • Времена английского глагола
  • Таблица видовременных форм глагола в действительном залоге
  • Таблица видовременных форм глагола в страдательном залоге
  • Сводная таблица видовременных форм глагола
  • Present Simple
  • Past Simple
  • Прибавление -ed
  • Future Simple
  • Present Continuous
  • Past Continuous
  • Future Continuous
  • Present Perfect
  • Past Perfect
  • Future Perfect
  • Present Perfect Continuous
  • Past Perfect Continuous
  • Future Perfect Continuous
  • Будущее в прошедшем
  • Конструкция be going to
  • Страдательный залог
  • Прямая и косвенная речь
  • Сослагательное наклонение
  • Типы условных предложений
  • Вспомогательные глаголы
  • Модальные глаголы
  • Инфинитив
  • Инфинитивные конструкции
  • Самостоятельный инфинитивный оборот
  • Сложное дополнение (Complex Object)
  • Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)
  • Конструкция for-to-infinitive
  • Причастие
  • Причастие 1 (настоящего времени)
  • Причастие 2 (прошедшего времени)
  • Причастие 1 перфектное
  • Объектная причастная конструкция
  • Субъектная причастная конструкция
  • Независимый причастный оборот
  • Герундий
  • Наречие
  • Слова-заместители
  • Предлог
  • Синтаксис
  • Порядок слов в предложении
  • Нераспространенные и распространенные предложения
  • Типы вопросительных предложений
  • Подлежащее
  • Безличные предложения
  • Неопределенно-личные предложения
  • Оборот “it is… that”
  • Сказуемое
  • Дополнение
  • Определение
  • Обстоятельство
  • Сложные члены предложения
  • Сложное предложение, типы придаточных предложений
  • Оборот there + be
  • Знаки препинания
  • Рекомендуемая литература
  • Английские фразовые глаголы
  • Примеры употребления фразовых глаголов








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