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Economics and Law = Экономика и право : метод. указания и контрольные работы по английскому языку






ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ


Данные методические указания ставят своей целью формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по экономическим и юридическим специальностям с целью извлечения информации из англоязычных источников. Поэтому особое внимание уделяется работе над текстом. Устный и письменный перевод используется на протяжении всего курса обучения как средство обучения, для контроля понимания прочитанного и в качестве возможного способа передачи полученной при чтении информации.

В процессе достижения цели обучения решаются задачи, способствующие повышению общеобразовательного и культурного уровня студентов. В связи с этим для контрольных заданий и иллюстративных примеров используются материалы периодической печати и общественно-политическая литература.

Выполнение упражнений, содержащих грамматические и лексические единицы, включенные в текст, способствует более адекватному восприятию текста.

Данная работа состоит из четырех основных частей. Первая часть – “Economics” (экономика) – состоит из четырех контрольных заданий для студентов экономических специальностей и включает в себя тексты по следующим темам: «Что такое экономика», «Экономист», «Чем занимаются экономисты», «Экономические системы».

Вторая часть – “Law” (право) – содержит шесть контрольных заданий для студентов юридических специальностей, в которых рассматриваются такие темы как: «Юрист», «Типы юридических профессий», «Древние правовые системы», «Общественная мораль, правила и законы» «Правительственная модель в Великобритании», «Американская государственная служба».

Контрольные работы предусматривают, главным образом, самостоятельную работу студентов по освоению программы, включающей грамматический и лексический материал, необходимый для овладения умениями и навыками чтения литературы по специальности. Каждая контрольная работа состоит из текста и восьми заданий, проверяющих как понимание текста, так и знание требуемого лексико-грамматического материала.

Третья часть – “Additional Reading” (дополнительное чтение) – предполагает закрепление навыков перевода англоязычных текстов по профессиональной тематике. В этой части представлены следующие темы: «Происхождение денег», «Налог», «Типы налогов», «Экономика России», «В поисках работы», «Судебная система Англии и Уэльса», «Судебная система США», «Британская конституция», «Британская избирательная система», «Управление штатами в США». После каждого текста даются вопросы, проверяющие понимание содержания прочитанного.

Четвертая часть – “Topics” (устные темы) – содержит тексты, которые можно использовать в качестве примера для подготовки устного сообщения. Предлагаются тексты по следующей тематике: «Рассказ о себе», «Семья», «Институт», «Мордовия», «Саранск». «Великобритания», «Лондон», «Экономист», «Юрист», «Менеджер».


ВЫПОЛНЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ ЗАДАНИЙ И ОФОРМЛЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ


1. Студент должен выполнять контрольные задания в соответствии с учебным планом института.

2. Письменные контрольные работы следует выполнять в отдельной тетради. На тетради должны быть написаны: фамилия, инициалы, а также номер контрольной работы.

3. Работы должны быть написаны черной или синей пастой, аккуратно, четким почерком или распечатаны; в тетради в клетку следует писать через клетку.

4. При выполнении работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и указаний преподавателя.

5. Каждый абзац текста должен начинаться с новой строки.

6. Выполненные контрольные задания направляются в институт в установленные сроки для проверки и рецензирования.

7. Если контрольная работа не выполнена в соответствии с указаниями или не полностью, она возвращается студенту без проверки.

8. К выполнению очередного контрольного задания можно приступить только после того, как рецензентом будет зачтена предшествующая контрольная работа.

9. Отрецензированные и исправленные контрольные работы на зачетах и экзаменах необходимо иметь при себе.


ЧАСТЬ I. ECONOMICS


WHAT IS ECONOMICS


Unlike history, mathematics, english and chemistry, economics is a subject that most students encounter only briefly before they begin college. Economics is a basic discipline, not an applied subject like accounting or drafting in which specific skills are taught.

Economics has some similarities to mathematics because logical reasoning and mathematical tools are used in it extensively. It also has some similarities to history because economics studies people as they interact in social groups.

Like chemistry, economics employs the scientific method, although some of economics has a descriptive rather than an analytical flavour. Finally, like english grammar, economics has a few simple rules and principles, but from these principles economics can derive many conclusions.

Economics is the science of making choices. Individuals must decide whether to study another hour or to go for a walk, whether to buy a six-pack of Pepsi or a 0,5 gallon of milk at the grocery, whether to choose fire fighting or teaching as an occupation and whether to play golf or to watch television for an afternoon of recreation. As a group, people must also choose through their governments whether to build a dam or to repair highways with their taxes, whether to invest money to business or to expand national parks.

The common element in all these decisions is that every choice involves a cost.

In fact, economics is the study of the choice that people make and the actions that they take in order to make the best use of scarce resources in meeting their wants.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

A basic discipline; an applied subject; similarities; logical reasoning; mathematical tools; a descriptive flavour; occupation; to invest money to business; the common element; to involve; the best use of scarce resources.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Знакомиться; бухгалтерский учет; особые навыки; широко использоваться; взаимодействовать в социальных группах; несколько простых принципов; налоги; расширять; стоимость; потребности.

III. Закончите предложения.

1. Economics is not an applied subject like...

2. Like chemistry, economics...

3. As a group, people must also choose whether to invest money to business or to expand national parks through ...

4. The common element of all decisions is ...

IV. Верны или неверны следующие утверждения:

1. Economics is a subject that most students encounter only briefly.

2. Economics is not a basic discipline like history, mathematics, english and chemistry.

3. Some of economics has a descriptive rather than an analytical flavour.

4. Economics is like english grammar, because it has difficult rules and principles.

V. Выберите правильное слово:

1. Economics is a ... discipline.

a) basic; b) natural; c) social.

2. ... is an applied subject.

a) history; b) accounting; c) economics.

3. Mathematical tools are used in economics ...

a) briefly; b) extensively; c) finally.

4. Like english grammar economics has a few... and principles.

a) rules; b) graphs; c) lines.

5. Every choice involves ...

a) investment; b) cost; c) time.

VI. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the difference between economics and such disciplines as history, mathematics, english and chemistry?

2. What is used extensively in economics?

3. What similarities has economics to chemistry?

4. Is economics the science of making choices?

5. What is the common element in all choices?

6. What does economics study?

VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. Most students encountered economics only briefly.

2. Economics has always employed the scientific method.

3. People generally repeated the decisions that they had made at an earlier time.

4. My brother was working at the bank when I graduated from the University.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод конструкций there are (there is/ there was/ there were).

1. There are some black markets in which people buy things at prices much higher than they should be.

2. There were some periods in our recent economic history when the price level rose despite low demand.

3. Today there is a surplus of unskilled and manual labourers in the north of England, whereas firms in the London area have vacancies unfilled.

4. There was a firm owned by a group of people called corporation.


ECONOMIST


I'm a student of the Mordovian State University. In the near future I'll graduate from the University and become a professional economist. I'm sure that the profession of an economist is one of the most important nowadays in our Republic.

What makes a good economist? Whatever he does, an economist should have a through training in economic theory, mathematics and statistics and our University offers such training. At the University we are taught various general and special subjects, such as Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Management, Accounting, Money and Banking, Economic Theory, Statistics, Computer Science, Business Ethics, english.

The profession of an economist is quite diversified. The graduates of the faculty work at the educational institutions, various research centers and laboratories, in industry, business, banks.

Being employed in industry and business, our graduates work as managers, as executive managers, sales managers, financial managers. Some of us work as accountants. An accountant is one of the prestigious and widely required professions of an economist in a society. You shouldn't mix an accountant with a book-keeper. While a book-keeper is mostly involved in calculations, like balance sheets, income statements, invoices, an accountant is responsible for designing the financial policy of a company.

Some of us work at the banks, at the Stock Exchange, others work for the government or are employed by various agencies and by military services.

Economists can solve many problems facing our republic.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

Graduate; in view of; various; graduates; to be employed; an executive manager; a financial manager; an accountant; widely required; a book-keeper; balance sheets; income; statements; invoices; military services; to face problems.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

В ближайшем будущем; в настоящее время; основательное обучение; предлагать; знание; вовлекать; разносторонний; исследовательские центры; менеджер по продажам; престижный; расчет; быть ответственным за что-либо; финансовая политика.

III. Закончите предложения:

1. An economist needs some knowledge of the world outside his own country because...

2. Being employed in industry and business, our graduates work...

3. One of the most prestigious and widely required professions of an economist is...

4. An accountant is responsible for...

IV. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What should an economist have to be a good economist?

2. What subjects does an economist need for his future profession?

3. Where can graduates work?

4. What is the difference between an accountant and a book-keeper?

V. Перепишите предложения, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. In the near future I'll graduate from the University.

2. The graduates of the Faculty work at educational institutions.

3. Scientists in the field of Economics created new theories and models.

4. I hope I'll manage to make my contribution to this process,

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, определяя, чем является окончание -s: а) показателем множественного числа существительного; Ь) показателем притяжательного падежа; с) окончанием глагола в 3 л. ед. ч. в Present Simple.

1. At the University we are taught various general and special subjects.

2. An accountant designs the financial policy of a company.

3. A book-keeper's duty is in calculations.

4. What makes a good economist?

VII. Задайте вопросы к предложениям и поставьте их в отрицательную

форму.

1. The profession of an economist is quite diversified.

2. Economists solve many problems facing our republic.

3. Government decisions were dominant in the former USSR.

4. Some knowledge of political and economic history will help an economist to expect changes.

VIII. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.

1. Будущие экономисты изучают различные предметы в университете, такие как экономическая теория, макроэкономика, бухгалтерский учет, финансы и кредит, статистика и другие.

2. Профессия экономиста является очень важной в нашей стране.

3. Наша республика сталкивается со многими экономическими проблемами.


WHAT ECONOMISTS DO


Usually a person is not qualified to use the name "economist" without a graduate degree in economics. By this definition, there are about 100 000 economists in the US.

About half of them are academic economists, who engage in teaching, writing and doing research in colleges and universities. They also write textbooks and journal articles, develop and test new theoretical models, provide consulting services to governments and businesses, and engage in a variety of other professional activities. The other half of the profession works for business or government. Business economists forecast sales and costs, help firms anticipate (or try to influence) government policy. Some business economists work for private lobbying organizations, helping them prepare their arguments to try to affect tax laws, regulations, etc. which are important to particular kinds of Industries.

Government economists also perform a variety of useful tasks. Often the government economist wears a second hat as a policy analyst. Economists forecast tax revenues and Interest rates, analyze who gains and who loses from particular changes, monitor prices, compute total output and perform other useful tasks in the public sector.

In the broader sense, economists study the ways in which people deal with the problems of scarcity.


Notes:

to wear a second hat - выполнять две или более обязанностей

I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

A graduate degree in economics; definition; academic economists; to test new theoretical models; consulting services; sales and costs; to affect tax laws; a policy analyst; to compute total output; problems of scarcity.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Предсказывать; предвосхищать; политика правительства; экономисты бизнеса; частные лоббистские организации; определенные отрасли промышленности; обязанности; налоговые доходы; процентные ставки; приобретать и терять; общественный сектор.

III. Выберите правильное слово:

1. There are about... economists in the US.

а) 200 000; b) 100 000; с) 10 000.

2. About half of economists are... economists.

a) academic; b) political; c)professional.

3.... economists forecast sales and costs.

a) government; b) academic; c) business.

4. Forecast tax revenues and interest rates, analyze who gains and who loses from particular changes and different other things are functions of ... economists.

a) government; b) business; c) professional.

IV. Верны или неверны следующие утверждения.

1. A person is qualified to use the name "economist" without a graduate degree in economics.

2. Academic economists write textbooks and journal articles.

3. Business economists help firms try to influence government policy.

4. Government economists provide consulting services to governments and business.

5. An economist studies people dealing with the problems of scarcity.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. Who can be qualified to use the name "economist?"

2. How many economists are there in the US?

3. What are the functions of academic economists?

4. What do business economists do?

5. What is the role of government economists?

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. Usually a person is not qualified to use the name "economist" without a graduate degree in economics.

2. The half of economists works for business or government.

3. Different films have used the help of economists.

4. An economist will forecast tax revenues and interest rates.

VII. Выберите нужное местоимение.

1. All societies develop (no, some) rules for social behavior and economic activity.

2. There is (no, nothing) limit to people's wants.

3. In economics "the long run" is the time period in which (nothing, anything) can be changed.

4. Price changes of (anything, any) kind create uncertainty in the minds of both, consumers and producers.

5. (Nobody, anybody) can overestimate the value of skilled labor.

VIII. Поставьте сказуемое в нужную видовременную форму.

1. In 1793 David Ricardo, the greatest of the classical economists, (to marry) and (to go) into business of his own.

2. People (to produce) goods and services.

3. The international economy (to experience) a basic change lately.

4. After economic integration (to grow), more and more nations became economically powerful.


ECONOMIC SYSTEMS


People and societies organize economic life to deal with the basic problems through economic systems. An economic system can be described as the collection of institutions, laws, incentives, activities that govern economic relationships among people in a society and provide a framework for answering the basic economic questions.

Most economic systems use one or more of three basic methods to make economic decisions: tradition, command and markets. So economic systems are classified into four broad categories, according to how most economic decisions are made. These are traditional, command, market and mixed economies.

Traditional economy. People generally repeat the decisions made at an earlier time or by an earlier generation. Can just anyone be king or queen of England? Tradition answers that question. In the US, women were strongly directed to certain "traditional" occupations for many years, such as teaching, raising children, nursing and being librarians.

Command economy. They rely almost totally on government to make economic decisions through centralized authorities. The government owns all the major productive resources. The former USSR and some other eastern bloc countries are examples of countries where government decisions were dominant.

Market economy. Most productive resources are owned by private individuals. Individuals make economic decisions in response to market signals and on the basis of their own preferences.

Mixed economy. The economic system used in most countries lies between the two extremes of command and market economies. Mixed economies answer the basic economic questions partly through the market and partly through the government, with some decisions based on tradition as well.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

The collection of incentives; to govern; a framework; four broad categories; an earlier generation; to be strongly directed to; occupations; to rely on; to own; through centralized authorities; dominant.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Иметь дело с основными проблемами через экономические системы; описывать; обеспечивать; один или более трех основных методов; командная экономика; в соответствии с; смешанная экономика; воспитание детей; почти полностью; бывший; страны восточного блока.

III. Закончите следующие предложения:

1. Any economic system can be described as...

2. Four broad categories of economic system are ...

3. The example of traditional economies is ...

4. The government owns all the major productive resources in ...

IV. Выберите правильное слово.

1. People and societies organize ... to deal with the basic problems through economic systems.

a) basic methods; b)economic system; c) economic life.

2. Tradition, command and markets are three basic methods to make ...

a) economic decisions; b)government decisions; c)productive resources.

3. Economic systems are classified into four ... categories.

a) social; b) broad; c) basic.

4. Command economies rely almost totally on ... to make economic decisions through centralized authorities.

a) government; b) themselves; c) people.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is an economic system?

2. What are three basic methods that most economic systems use?

3. What does it mean "traditional" occupations for women in the US?

4. What were "traditional" occupations for women in the US?

5. What does it mean "command" economy?

6. What does the government own?

VI. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, определив видовременную форму глаголов.

1. An economic system is described as the collection of institutions, laws, incentives, activities that govern economic relationships among people in a society.

2. People and societies organized economic life to deal with the basic problems through economic systems.

3. People generally repeat the decisions that were made at an earlier time.

4. A framework for answering the basic economic questions will be provided with an economic system.

VII. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения слов it, one.

1. It is necessary to make choices because we live in a world of scarcity.

2. It is technological improvements that increase the productivity of labour very often.

3. One always faces the scarcity problem in some form.

4. All societies must decide what goods and services to produce, which ones to postpone, and when and how to transfer productive resources from one use to another.

VIII. Перепишите предложения, переведите их на русский язык, подчеркните модальные глаголы.

1. Can just anyone be king or queen of England?

2. To be qualified to use the name "economist" a person must have a graduate degree in economics, either a master's degree or a Ph.D.

3. The government economist should wear a second hat as a policy analyst.

4. People have to choose through their governments whether to build a dam.



ЧАСТЬ II. LAW


LAWYER


I'm a student of the Mordovian State University. I study at the Law Faculty. I'll graduate from the University and become a professional lawyer. To become a good lawyer one must know much. So at the University we are taught various general and special subjects: Roman Law, Labour Law, Family Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law.

The profession of a lawyer is quite diversified. The graduates of our faculty can work as investigators, judges, defence counsels, legal consultants. I'd like to be a judge and to work at a People's Court. My friends work at the Procurator's Office, Militia.

I think that now profession of a lawyer is one of the most important in the lstate. Lawyers have to solve many problems that still exist in our society. The duty of lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes: hooliganism, murder, traffic violation and so on but they must do their best to prevent crimes, to fight against evil in our society. They should help those people who committed an error to find the right road to their life.

The lawyers protect the rights and legal interests of citizens, institutions and organizations. All the citizens are equal before the law. Judges are elected for a term of 5 years.

In our country justice is exercised on the principles of equality of citizens before the law and the court, regardless of social position, property or official standing, nationality or race.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

Family Law; defence counsels; Procurator's Office; lаw-governed state; traffic violation; to fight against smth; to commit an error; legal interests; representative; equal authority; to be exercised on smth; regardless; property.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Трудовое право; гражданское право; разносторонний; следователь; судья; юрисконсульт; существовать; наказывать; преступления; ошибка; избирать.

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. I study at the Law Faculty.

2. You will work as lawyers in future.

3. Legislation to protect the public against terrorism gave the authorities certain exceptional powers.

4. Proceedings of all courts are open.

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, определяя, чем является окончание - s: a) показателем множественного числа существительного; б) показателем притяжательного падежа; с) окончанием глагола в 3 л. ед. ч. в Present Simple.

1. All citizens are equal before the law.

2. All people before the court are presumed innocent, until the court finds them guilty.

3. My friends work at the Procurator's Office.

V. Замените, где возможно, существительные с предлогом of формой притяжательного падежа:

The opinion of the lawyer, the signature of the judge, the conclusions of the expert, the office of legal consultants, the notebook of investigator, the absence of law, the courts of magistrates, a set of rules.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем существительным.

1. More serious cases are heard in the Crown Courts.

2. The Justice Department is reasonable for faithful execution of the laws under the president's authority.

3. As well as government departments there are government agencies formed to operate public services.

4. The Court reporter, who sits close to the witnesses and the judge, puts down every word that is spoken during the trial and also may record the proceedings on tape.

VII. Задайте вопросы к предложениям и поставьте их в отрицательную форму:

1. The profession of a lawyer is quite diversified.

2. The lawyers protect the rights of citizens.

3. England abolished judicial corporal punishment in 1948.

4. The profession of a lawyer will be the most respectful in the law-governed state.

5. The Government takes a number of measures to strengthen the criminal justice system.

VIII. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What disciplines are students taught at the Law Faculty?

2. What is the duty of lawyers?

3. Are all the citizens equal before the law?

4. How many years are judges elected for?

5. What is justice exercised on in our country?


TYPES OF LEGAL PROFESSION


SOLICITORS. There are about 50,000 solicitors, a number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up far the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. They are found in every town, where they deal with all the day-today work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients, prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their client in a Magistrates" court.

BARRISTERS. There are about 5,000 barristers who defend or prosecute in the higher courts. Although solicitors and barristers work together on cases, barristers specialize in representing clients in court and the training and career structures for the two types of lawyer are quite separate. In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formality of the proceedings. The highest level of barristers have the title QC (Queen's Council).

JUDGES. There are a few hundred judges, trained as barristers, who preside in more serious cases. There is no separate training for judges.

JURY. A jury consists of twelve people ("juriors"), who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of people who can vote in elections). The jury listens to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. Juries are rarely used in civil cases.

MAGISTRATES. There are about 30,000 magistrates (Justices of the Peace or JPs), who judge cases in the lower courts. There are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications, but they are respectable people who are given some training.

CORONERS. Coroners have medical or legal training (or both), and inquire into violent or unnatural deaths.

CLERKS OF THE COURT. Clerks look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

Rapidly increasing; to deal with...; higher courts; to defend; to wear wigs and gowns; to preside in serious cases; to consist of...; to vote; the defendant; to inquire into; to look after legal matters.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Судебное дело; преследовать в судебном порядке; наугад; выборы; невиновный; наказание; председательствующий судья; не иметь юридической квалификации; представительные люди; насильственная смерть.

III. Выберите правильное определение для каждой профессии, упомянутой в тексте:

a) an officer acting as a judge in the lower courts.

b) a public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a law court.

c) a group of people who swear to give a true decision on issues of in a law court.

d) an official who investigates the cause of any death thought to be violent or unnatural causes.

e) a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts.

f) a lawyer who prepares legal documents, advises, clients on legal and speaks for them in lower law courts,

IV. Верны или неверны следующие утверждения:

1. There are about 50,000 solicitors, a number of which is not increasing.

2. Solicitors prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts.

3. Sometimes solicitors and barristers work together on cases.

4. There is a separate training for judges.

5. There are about 30,000 magistrates, who judge cases in the higher courts.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What is the difference between solicitors and barristers ?

2. What is the highest level of barristers?

3. Who is «a juror»?

4. What do coroners do?

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. This man has not spoken in his defence.

2. When asked to explain the difference between an ordinary citizen and a lawyer, a well-known barrister explained.

3. Crime statistics had reflected different kinds of offences.

4. The police will have investigated the latest robbery by the beginning of the next week.

VII. Определите, является ли глагол "to have" смысловым или вспомогательным. Предложения переведите на русский язык.

1. Each country of the world has its own system of law.

2. The members of the jury listened to the speeches made by the persons who had brought the case before them.

3. French public law has never been codified.

4. In Greece each city had its own law.

VIII. Поставьте глагол в нужную форму и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. In the seventh century B.C. the Greeks ... (to begin) to put their laws into writing.

2. Many english laws... (to derive) from judicial precedents.

3. I think he ... (to achieve) great success in his studies.

4. We ... (to discuss) new aspects of privatization at the next seminar.


SOCIAL MORALITY, RULES AND LAWS


The english word "law" refers to limits upon various forms of behavior. Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people usually behave. Other laws are prescriptive - they prescribe how people ought to behave.

In all societies relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs - that is, informal rules of social and moral behavior. Some are rules we accept if we belong to particular social institutions, such as religious, educational and cultural groups. And some laws are made by nations and enforced against all citizens within their power.

The rules of social institutions are more formal than customs. They carry penalties for those who break them. They are not, however, enforceable by any political authority.

Customs need not be made by governments, and they need not be written down. We learn how we should behave in society through the instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, and our own experience. Sometimes, we can break the rules, or break a very important one, other members of society may criticize us, act violently toward us or refuse to have anything to do with us. The ways in which people talk, eat and drink, work and relax together are usually guided by many such informal rules which have very little to do with laws created by governments.

However, when governments make laws for their citizens, they use a system of courts backed by the power of the police. Of course, there may be instances where the law is not enforced against someone (for example when young children commit crimes).


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

То behave; limits; prescribe; customs; to belong to; to accept; moral behavior; however; one's own experiences; to refuse to have anything to do with smb; to be guided by smth; to commit crimes.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Предписанный; регулировать; проводить законы в жизнь; нести наказание; нарушать (законы); политическая власть; страдать; постоянно; вести себя жестоко по отношению к кому-либо; создавать; подчеркивать; отдельный случай.

III. Заполните предложения необходимыми по смыслу словами.

1. Prescriptive laws ... how people ought to behave.

2. Some laws are made by ... and enforced against all citizens within their power.

3. ... carry penalties for those people who break them.

4. ... need not be written down.

IV. Верны или неверны следующие предложения:

1. There are two kinds of laws: descriptive and prescriptive.

2. Customs are more formal than the rules of social institutions.

3. Customs are made by governments and they are written down.

4. When young children commit crimes the law is not enforced against them.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What does the english word "law" refer to?

2. What is the difference between descriptive and prescriptive laws?

3. What is the difference between the rules of social institutions and customs?

4. Are there any instances where the law is not enforced against someone?

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. The jury system became more firmly established and trial by jury became compulsory.

2. Over the past two centuries, the Constitution has also had considerable influence outside the United States.

3. They explained now they had planned the robbery. 4.1 was reading a book when the police came.

VII. Поставьте прилагательные в необходимые формы сравнения.

1. The profession of a lawyer is one of the (important) in the law-governed state.

2. The Queen is the (official) Head of State.

3. Lawyers' salaries are (great) than those of many other professionals.

4. This barrister has as (many) clients as that one.

5. The (little) the evidence, the (difficult) to find a murderer.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод конструкции there is (there are/there was/there were).

1. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives.

2. Twenty-five years ago, there was one lawyer for every 700 people.

3. There were a lot of counterfeit banknotes in circulation.

4. There will be a lot of evidence that proves this fact.


ANCIENT SYSTEMS OF LAW


One of the earliest systems of law of which we have knowledge is the collection of laws, known as the Code of Hammurabi, the Babylonian king, who lived in about 1900 B.C., and whose stone figure we can see in the British Museum in London. Another early code is the code of Hebrew Law contained in the Bible.

In Greece each city state had its own law, some laws were common to many states. In the seventh century B.C. the Greeks began to put their laws into writing. About 594 B.C. Solon, the famous Athenian law-giver, provided a new code of law. The Athenians did not consider it necessary to have legal experts for non-criminal cases. In a civil case the verdict was given by a jury, which might number anything from 201 to 2,500. The members of a jury listened to speeches made by the persons who had brought the case before them, and by their friends. Barristers did not participate in court proceedings, but professional speech writers sometimes prepare speeches.

Roman law is one of the greatest systems that has ever existed. It was based upon custom, and by A.D. 528 the quantity of Roman law had become so immense that The Emperor Justinian in Constantinopole ordered to make a clear, systematic code of all the laws.

Roman law had a deep influence upon the law of the world. It had a strong influence of most European countries and some influence on Anglo-Saxon law, which is the other great law system of the world. After many years Roman law reappeared in the eleventh century, when there was a great revival of learning. Many European countries began to use Roman law in their courts. In France, however, until Napoleon codified the law in 1804, each province has its own laws. The Napoleonic Code was a splendid achievement, and it has influenced the law of many countries in Europe and South America.


Notes:

В.С. (before Christ) – до нашей эры.

Hebrew Law – древнееврейское право.

A.D. (Anno Domini) (лат.) – нашей эры.

I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

Code; state; a law-giver; non-criminal cases; a jury; to participate; to exist; to be based upon; quantity; to have a deep influence upon a great revival of learning.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Каменная фигура; содержащийся; излагать в письменной форме; обеспечивать; выносить вердикт; судебное разбирательство; огромный; появиться снова; приводить в систему; достижение.

III. Закончите следующие предложения.

1. One of the earliest systems of law was ...

2. The Greeks began to put their laws into writing in ...

3. The Emperor Justinian in Constantinopole ordered to make a clear, systematic code of all the laws because ...

4. In France each province had its own laws until ...

IV. Верны или неверны следующие утверждения:

1. The Book of Exodus in the Bible contains the code of Hebrew Law.

2. About 794 B.C. Solon, the famous Athenian law-giver, provided a new code of law.

3. Barristers participated in court proceedings.

4. Many European countries began to use Roman law in their courts.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What ancient systems of law do we have knowledge of ?

2. What book contains one of the earliest systems of law ?

3. When did the Greeks begin to put their laws into writing ?

4. What is one of the greatest systems of law ?

5. What system of law had a great influence on the law of the world ?

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, определяя видовременную форму глаголов в пассивном залоге.

1. The law on partnership was codified by the Parliament in 1972.

2. Customs are not created by societies consciously.

3. Many general customs have been adopted by the courts and have become laws.

4. Roman law was used in the courts by many European countries.

VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, подчеркните модальные глаголы.

1. The custom must not be unreasonable.

2. Preparing a bill for submission to Parliament may take many months.

3. The Lords can merely delay bills which they don't like.

4. They should participate in the movement aiming to bring about fundamental change.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на функции и значение слов «it» и «one».

1. It is not easy to cross-examine all witnesses in a short period of time.

2. Law cannot be separated from the judges who interpret and administer it.

3. It is the cabinet and not Parliament that controls and runs the nation's affair in England.

4. Business contacts as well as cultural ones contribute to mutual understanding and trust among peoples.

5. One must observe the law.


THE GOVERNMENTAL MODEL IN THE UK


The governmental model that operates in Britain today is usually described as constitutional monarchy, or parliamentary system. While a monarch still has a role to play on some executive and legislative levels, it is Parliament, which possesses the essential power, and the government of the day, which governs by initiating and controlling political policy and legislation. The correct constitutional definition of Parliament is "Queen-in-Parliament", and all state and governmental business is therefore carried out in the name of the monarch by the politicians and officials of the system.

In constitutional theory the British people hold the political sovereignty to choose their government, while Parliament, consisting partly of their elected representatives in the Commons, possesses the legal sovereignty to make laws.

The various branches of this political system, although easily distinguishable from each other, are not entirely separate. The monarch is formally head of the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.

The legislature, which consists of both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch, is for most purposes the supreme law-making body.

The executive comprises the sitting government and its Cabinet, together with government ministers of departments headed by ministers or secretaries of state, who all act formally in the name of the monarch. The judiciary is composed mainly of the judges of the higher courts, who determine the common law and interpret Acts of Parliament.

The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the legislative and executive branches of government.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

Constitutional monarchy; to possess the essential power; initialing and controlling political policy; to carry out; to hold the political sovereignty; to be distinguishable from; separate; purpose; to be composed of; independent.

II. Переведите с русского языка на английский:

Действовать; исполнительный; законодательный; управлять; определение; следовательно; чиновники; выбирать правительство; состоять из чего-либо; выбирать, избирать; обладать; полностью, всецело; включать; определять.

III. Закончите предложения.

1. A monarch has a role to play on some executive and legislative levels, and Parliament...

2. The correct constitutional definition of Parliament is ...

3. To choose their government the British people...

4. The legislature consists of...

5. The judiciary is independent of...

IV. Верны или неверны следующие предложения:

1. The governmental model in the UK is described as parliamentary system.

2. All state and governmental business isn't carried out in the name of the monarch.

3. Parliament possesses the legal sovereignty to make laws.

4. The monarch is the head of the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.

5. The various branches of the UK political system are entirely separate.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What role does the sovereign play in constitutional monarchy?

2. Why are the branches of the British political system not entirely separate?

3. What are the functions of the three branches of power?

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, определяя видовременную форму глаголов.

1. I have never been to any court, criminal or civil.

2. They explained how they had planned the robbery.

3. How long has this man been in jail ?

4. She will have given evidence by that time tomorrow.

VII. Вставьте вместо точек необходимый артикль: "a/an", "the" или нулевой.

1. ... defendant is ... person against whom a legal action is brought.

2. Bill Clinton was ... President of ... USA.

3. It is ... serious statement. I cannot support it. ... statement contradicts ... facts.

4. One of... problems they discussed concerned ... arrest of... soldier.

VIII. Поставьте глаголы в нужную форму.

1. Не... (to study) law at the University.

2. I'm sure he... (to make) a good lawyer.

3. They often... (to publish) information on economic crimes.

4. In 1984 the average salary of experienced lawyers... (to be) 88,000 dollars

5. The murder rate... (to change) since 1969 yet.


THE AMERICAN CIVIL SERVICE


Many people think of a federal bureaucrat as a pencil pusher shuffling papers in Washington, D. C. This image, however, is not accurate. First of all, only 11 percent of all federal government employees work in Washington, D. C. Most of them work in regional and local offices scattered across the United States and the world. Second, FBI agents, forest rangers, and air-traffic controllers are as much part of the federal bureaucracy are as secretaries and file clerks. Their activities have little to do with bureaucratic paperwork.

Federal government employees play a vital role in assuring the smooth functioning of the United States government. Who are the people who work for the many departments and agencies that make up the federal bureaucracy? The typical man or woman in the federal service is about 43 years old and has worked for the government for a total of about 15 years. Federal workers are better educated than workers in the general population. More than a half of them have some college training, while a quarter have done graduate work at universities.

Federal workers hold a great variety of jobs. Besides administrative workers, the government also employs doctors, veterinarians, lawyers, cartographers, scientists, engineers, accountants, and many other professionals.

The way the civil servants get their offices is also important. During the first years of democracy, George Washington declared that he appointed government officials according to "fitness of character." Another president, Andrew Jackson argued that long service in the same jobs by any group of workers would only promote tyranny.


I. Переведите с английского языка на русский:

A pencil pusher shuffling papers; forest rangers; file clerk; to have little to do with; a vital role; department; general population; college training; to hold; besides; to declare; "fitness of character".

II. Переведите с русского на английский:

Точный; прежде всего; служащий, работающий по найму; разбросанный; работа с бумагами; гарантировать, обеспечивать; спокойный; составлять; в целом, в совокупности; в то время как; бухгалтер; назначать; способствовать.

III. Закончите следующие предложения:

1. Most of federal government employees work...

2. The typical man or woman in the federal service has worked for the government for...

3. George Washington appointed government officials according to...

IV. Верны или неверны следующие утверждения:

1. The image of a federal bureaucrat as a pencil pusher shuffling papers is accurate.

2. The activities of FBI agent, forest rangers, and air- traffic controllers have little to do with bureaucratic paperwork.

3. Federal workers are worse educated than workers in the general population.

4. Andrew Jackson said that long service in the same jobs would promote tyranny.

V. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What common features do federal workers have?

2. What kind of jobs do government employees hold?

3. How did civil servants get their offices in the first years of American democracy?

4. How were governmental officials appointed in the first years of American democracy?

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, определяя видовременную форму глаголов в пассивном залоге.

1. All defendants are entitled to legal representation which will be provided free if they cannot pay for it.

2. A burglar alarm has been installed in the apartment.

3. He was caught red handed.

4. I asked him if the goods had been delivered in strict conformity with the Contract.

VII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, подчеркните модальные глаголы.

1. The President, the head of the Executive Branch, must carry out the government programs adopted by the Congress.

2. A barrister can only be consulted in directly through a solicitor.

3. The physical conduct of the accused may either be active, or may consist of an omission where there is a legal duty to act.

4. We learn how we should behave in society through instruction of family and teachers, friends and our own experiences.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных и отрицательных местоимений.

1. Federal workers have some college training.

2. Are there any political parties in the UK?

3. There is nothing to stop unconventional candidates from standing for election, however.

4. Some Members of Parliament in Great Britain hold an advice bureau in their constituencies.



ЧАСТЬ III. ADDITIONAL READING


ORIGINS OF MONEY


There are numerous myths about the origins of money. The concept of money is often confused with coinage. Coins are a relatively modern form of money. Their first appearance was probably in Asia in the 7th century BC. And whether these coins were used as money in the modern sense has also been questioned.

To determine the earliest use of money, we need to define what we mean by money. We will return to this issue shortly. But with any reasonable definition the first use of money is as old as human civilization. The early Persians deposited their grain in state or church granaries. The receipts of deposit were then used as methods of payment in the economies. Thus, banks were invented before coins. Ancient Egypt had a similar system, but instead of receipts they used orders of withdrawal – thus making their system very close to that of modern checks. In fact, during Alexander the Great’s period, the granaries were linked together, making checks in the 3rd century BC more convenient than British checks in the 1980s.

However, money is older than written history. Recent anthropological and linguistic research indicates that not only is money very old, but it’s origin has little to do with trading, thus contradicting another common myth. Rather, money was first used in a social setting. Probably at first as a method of punishment.

Early Stone Age man began the use of precious metals as money. Until the invention of coins, metals were weighed to determine their value. Counting is of course more practical, the first standardized ingots appeared around 2200 BC. Other commonplace objects were subsequently used in the abstract sense, for example miniature axes, nails, swords, etc.

Full standardization arrived with coins, approximately 700 BC. The first printed money appeared in China, around 800 AD. The first severe inflation was in the 11th century AD. The Mongols adapted the bank note system in the 13th century, which Marco Polo wrote about. The Mongol bank notes were “legal tender”, i.e. it was a capital offense to refuse them as payment. By the late 1400s, centuries of inflation eliminated printed bank notes in China. They were reinvented in Europe in the 17th century.


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. Are the concepts of money and coinage the same?

2. How old is the first money?

3. What did early Stone Age men use as money?

4. Where and when did the first bank notes appear?

5. When and where was the printed money reinvented?


TAX


A tax is a compulsory charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (e. g., tribes). Taxes could also be imposed by a subnational entity.

Taxes may be paid in cash or in kind or as corvee labor. In modern capitalist taxation systems, taxes are designed to encourage the most efficient circulation of goods and services and are levied in cash. In kind and corvee taxation are characteristic of traditional or pre-capitalist states and their functional equivalents. The means of taxation, and the uses to which the funds raised through taxation should be put, are a matter of hot dispute in politics and economics, so discussions of taxation are frequently tendentious.

Political authority has been used to raise capital throughout history. In many pre-monetary societies, such as the Incan empire, taxes were owed in labor. Taxation in labor was the basis of the Feudal system in medieval Europe.

In more sophisticated economies such as the Roman Empire, tax farming developed, as the central powers could not practically enforce their tax policy across a wide realm. The tax farmers were obligated to raise large sums for the government, but were allowed to keep whatever else they raised.

There were certain times in the Middle Ages where the governments did not explicitly tax, since they were self-supporting, owning their own land and creating their own products. The appearance of doing without taxes was however illusory, since the government's (usually the Crown's) independent income sources depended on labor enforced under the feudal system, which is a tax exacted in kind.

Many taxes were originally introduced to fund wars and are still in place today, such as those raised by the American government during the American Civil War (1861-1865). Income tax was first introduced into Britain in 1798 to pay for weapons and equipment in preparation for the Napoleonic wars and into Canada in 1917 as a "temporary" tax under the Income War Tax Act to cover government expenses resulting from World War I.

The current income tax in America was set up by Theodore Roosevelt in 1913. It was called The Federal Income Tax and was deducted from incomes at rates varying from 1-7%. But, since then, the American Tax Code has been modified and new taxes have been added, especially over the World War I and II periods. Since World War II, the American Tax Code has increased in size four-fold.


Notes:

corvee [‘k?:vei] – 1) барщина; 2) рабский труд, тяжелая работа

tax farmer – откупщик, сборщик налогов, податей

in kind – натуральный (в форме товаров или услуг, а не денег)

income tax act – закон о подоходном налоге

Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. What is the definition of a tax?

2. How can taxes be paid?

3. How were taxes paid in medieval Europe?

4. Why were taxes introduced?

5. Which document describes what taxes people have to pay?


TYPES OF TAXES


Taxes are sometimes referred to as direct or indirect. In economics, direct taxes refer to those taxes that are collected from the people or organizations on whom they are imposed. For example, income taxes are collected from the person who earns the income. By contrast, indirect taxes are collected from someone other than the person responsible for paying the taxes.

Income tax is commonly a progressive tax because the tax rate increases with increasing income. Some critics characterize this tax as a form of punishment for economic productivity. Income tax fraud is a problem in most, if not all, countries implementing an income tax. Either one fails to declare income, or declares nonexistent expenses. Failure to declare income is especially easy for non-salaried work, especially those paid in cash. Tax enforcement authorities fight tax fraud using various methods, nowadays with the help of computer databases.

Income tax may be collected from legal entities (e. g., companies) as well as natural persons (individuals), although, in some cases, the income tax on legal entities is levied on a slightly different basis than the income tax on individuals and may be called, in the case of income tax on companies, a corporation tax or a corporate income tax.

A poll tax, also called a per capita tax, or capitation tax, is a tax that levies a set amount per individual. The earliest tax mentioned in the Bible of a half-shekel per annum from each adult Jew was a form of poll tax. Poll taxes take the same amount of money and hence, a higher proportion of income for poorer individuals as for richer individuals. Poll taxes are difficult to cheat.

A value added tax (sometimes called a goods and services tax, as in Australia and Canada) applies the equivalent of a sales tax to every operation that creates value. VAT was historically used when a sales tax or excise tax was uncollectible. In reality, forged invoices and the like demonstrate that tax evaders will always attempt to cheat the system.


Notes:

income tax – подоходный налог

to advocate – 1) защищать, выступать в защиту; 2) поддерживать; 3) отстаивать

fraud – мошенничество

legal entity – юридическое лицо

natural person – физическое лицо

corporation tax (corporate income tax) – корпоративный налог, налог на корпорации, налог на прибыль корпорации

poll tax (per capita tax, capitation tax) – подушный избирательный налог, подушный налог

per annum – в год, ежегодно

hence – 1) значит; 2) отсюда; 3) следовательно

Value Added Tax (VAT) – налог на добавленную стоимость (НДС)

sales tax – налог с продаж (оборота)

excise tax – акцизный сбор

uncollectible – безнадежный

to forge – подделывать документ, изготовлять подложный документ

invoice – счет, фактура, счет-фактура

tax evader (evador (UK)) – лицо, уклоняющееся от уплаты налогов


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. What are the two main kinds of taxes?

2. What is a progressive tax?

3. What is the VAT?

4. What is the poll tax?

5. What is the income tax?


ECONOMY OF RUSSIA


The Soviet Union had a centralized state control over virtually all means of production, exchange, distribution arid investment. The Soviet Union also had a planned economy. Economic policy was made according to directives from the Communist Party, which controlled all aspects of economic activity.

Russia undertakes the transition to fully-developed market economy with challenges and obstacles. However, Russian economy has great potential for growth. Russia possesses huge supplies of many of the world's most valued natural resources, especially those required to support a modern industrialized economy. It also has a well-educated labour force with substantial technical expertise. At the same time, Soviet-era management practices, old infrastructure, and inefficient supply systems hinder efficient utilization of those resources.

Russia ended 2006 with its fifth year of growth, averaging 6.5% annually since the financial crisis of 1998. Although high oil prices and a relatively cheap ruble are important factors of these economic successes, since 2000 investment and consumer-driven demand have played a noticeably increasing role.

Real fixed capital investments have averaged gains greater than 10% over the last four years and real personal incomes have increased over 12% on averaged Russia has also improved its international financial standing since the 1998 financial crisis, with its declining national debt.

Strong oil export earnings have allowed Russia to increase its currency reserve. These achievements, along with a renewed government effort to advance structural reforms, have raised business and investor confidence in Russia's economic prospects.

Nevertheless, serious problems exist. Oil, natural gas, metals, and
timber account for more than 80% of exports, leaving the country vulnerable to swings in world prices.

Russia's manufacturing base is dilapidated and must be replaced or modernized if the country is to achieve considerable economic growth. Other problems include a weak banking system, a poor business climate that discourages domestic and foreign investors, corruption,-local and regional government intervention in the courts, and widespread lack of trust in institutions.


Notes:

centralized — централизованный

state control — государственный контроль

virtually — практически

to undertake — предпринимать, проводить

challenges — проблемы, задачи, «вызовы»

valued — ценный

substantial — значительный

expertise — опыт, знание дела

hinder — затруднять, препятствовать

annually — ежегодно

consumer-driven demand — спрос, вызванный населением

real fixed capital investments — реальные вложения в основной капитал

to have averaged gains — зд. сделать обычными доходами

to improve — улучшать

financial standing — финансовое положение

currency reserves — валютные резервы

confidence — уверенность

prospects — перспективы

timber— лесоматериалы

to account for — составлять

vulnerable — уязвимый, ранимый

swings — колебания

dilapidated — ветхий, изношенный

considerable — значительный

weak — слабый

domestic — местный, внутренний

intervention in the courts — вмешательство в судопроизводство

lack of trust — недостаток доверия


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. What are the characteristics of the economy of the Soviet Union?

2. How was the economic policy made in the Soviet Union?

3. How does Russia undertake the transition to capitalism?

4. What are the assets of Russian economy?

5. What does hinder the efficient utilization of the resources?

6. How does Russian economy perform since the year 2000?

7. What is the role of consumers in the economic rebound?

8. What is said about the foreign reserves?

9. Why is Russian economy vulnerable to swings in oil prices?

10. What are the problems of Russian economy?


LOOKING FOR A JOB


When a company needs to recruit or employ new people, it may decide to advertise the job or position in the "NEED HELP" section of a newspaper. People who arе interested can apply for the job by sending in a letter of application or covering letter (in the USA — cover letter) and a curriculum vitae or CV (in the USA – resume) containing details of their education and experience.

A company may also ask candidates to complete a standard application form. The company's Human Resources department will then select the most suitable applications and prepare a shortlist of candidates or applicants, who are invited to attend an interview. Another way for a company to hire is by using the services of a recruitment agency, which provides a list of suitable candidates.

The CV (curriculum vitae) is presenting your education, skills experience to the employer. CV demonstrates the suitability of an applicant for the job. As well as providing an insight into previous qualifications and experience, it should show the employer the skills and qualities the applicant has, that will match the position being applied for. In compiling CV the applicant has one objective only — to get an interview in order to get the job.

A CV must be accurate, interesting and up-to-date. It must be presentable so that it makes the best impression possible and gets noticed. It should be relevant — targeted to the needs of each particular position.

In your CV you need to bring together details of your qualifications, details of the job itself, details of the qualifications and skills required, evidence from your personal profile that matches the employer’s criteria.


Notes:

to recruit — нанимать, брать на работу

to advertise — давать объявление

section of a newspaper — рубрика газеты

apply for a job — подавать заявление на должность

letter of application (covering letter) — сопроводительное письмо

curriculum vitae (CV) or resume — резюме

to complete an application form — заполнить анкету

Human Resources department — отдел по работе с кадрами

shortlist of candidates — окончательный список кандидатов

to attend an interview — посещать интервью

recruitment agency — кадровое агентство

insight (into) — понимание, догадка, озарение, проникновение в суть

in order to — для того, чтобы

up-to-date — новейший

impression — впечатление

to get noticed — быть замеченным, привлечь внимание

relevant — релевантный, уместный

targeted to the needs — нацеленный на потребности

particular position — конкретная должность

should be included — должна быть включена


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. How can people apply for a job?

2. What are the functions of a Human Resources department?

3. What does a CV demonstrate?

4. How should a CV be written?

5. What must one bring together in his or her CV?


THE COURT SYSTEM OF ENGLAND AND WALES


There are two main types of court in England and Wales: magistrates' courts (or courts of the first instance), which deal with about 95 per cent of criminal cases and with some civil matters, and Crown Courts for more serious offences. All criminal cases above the level of magistrates' courts are held before a jury.

There are about 700 magistrates' courts in England and Wales, served by approximately 28,000 unpaid magistrates or Justices of the Peace (JPs) who are ordinary citizens. A court normally consists of three magistrates, who are advised on points of law by a legally qualified clerk. They may not impose a sentence of more than six months imprisonment or a fine of more than 2000 pounds, and may refer cases requiring a heavier penalty to the Crown Court. A Crown Court is presided over by a professional judge, but the verdict is reached by a jury of twelve citizens, who are selected at random. There are some offences where the defendant is given the choice of having his case heard in the magistrates' court or the Crown Court.

A person convicted in a magistrates' court may appeal against its decision to the local Crown Court, which will hear the appeal without a jury. On points of law he may appeal directly to the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court. Appeals against a decision of the Crown Court go first to the High Court and, in special cases, to the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division). The highest court of appeal is the House of Lords. The decisions of law lords on both criminal and civil matters bind all other courts. Only the government can overturn a decision of the House of Lords by passing an Act of Parliament.

Apart from the limited civil functions of magistrates' courts, the lowest court in a civil action is a County Court, of which there is one in every town in England and Wales. The judges are always professionals. They may hear matters such as contract disputes and actions regarding the property of a dead person. Cases involving larger amounts of money are heard by one of the divisions of the High Court. Appeals from the High Court, and most appeals from the County Courts, go to the Court of Appeal (Civil Division).


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. What are the two main types of court in England and Wales?

2. How many magistrates’ courts are there in England and Wales?

3. Who presides over a Crown Court?

4. Where may a person convicted in a magistrates’ court appeal against its decision?

5. What is the highest court of appeal?


THE COURT SYSTEM OF THE USA


The American court system is complex, mainly because of the federal system of government in the USA. Each slate runs its own separate system of courts. In addition, there is a separate system of federal courts, which operates alongside the state courts.

The structure of state courts varies from state to stale. Usually there are minor trial courts for less serious cases, major trial courts for more serious cases, intermediate appellate courts and courts of last resort. The state's minor trial courts have various names: justice courts, small-claims courts, traffic courts, police courts, municipal courts, mayors' courts. The judges in these courts are usually quite professional, but some states still have Justices of Peace - men and women who have never gone to law school and never taken the bar exam.

The next level of the pyramid is made up of state's courts of general jurisdiction, which are the basic trial courts. These courts hear civil cases involving larger amounts of money than in minor trial courts. They also handle cases of serious crime, such as burglary, rape and murder. The judges are always lawyers.

In states with small population the loser of the trial court can appeal directly to the state's top court usually called the Supreme Court. In other words, these states have "two-tier" court systems. The states with big or middle-sized populations have a "three-tier" system. Most appeals go to the middle level, and (here they end.

Federal courts are also organized in three tiers: district courts, courts of appeals and the Supreme Court. All federal judges are appointed for life.

A case which falls within federal jurisdiction is heard first in one of the ninety-four district courts. Every state has at least one, in the larger states there arc more than one district court. Each case is tried by a single judge, sitting alone.


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. Why is the American court system complex?

2. What are the names of the state's minor trial courts?

3. Who is Justice of Peace?

4. What are the basic trial courts?

5. How are federal courts organized?


THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION


Parliamentary democracy in Britain has a special character which stems from the fact that the British Constitution is not to be found in a single document. This does not mean, however, that Britain does not have a formal and controlled system of government. British democracy has evolved over time. Treaties like the Act of Union between England and Scotland in 1707 and the treaty with the Irish Free State in December 1921 have helped to shape the Constitution as it is today.

Similarly, statute laws have established constitutional principles which have then been interpreted and developed by the courts. In addition, historic practices have gradually become recognised as part of the Constitution. The whole complex system has developed gradually over the centuries and continues to do so.

The increasing importance of the party system, which supplies both the Government and the Opposition in the Houses of Parliament, is an illustration of political evolution. So too is the office of Prime Minister. A modern British Prime Minister has very considerable powers, greater than those of many other leaders of democratic states. These powers do not stem from a constitutional document or from statute law. They have arisen as a result of the growing strength of party discipline and organisation and experience of the conduct of affairs particularly in time of war.


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. What is parliamentary democracy in Britain like?

2. What treaties have helped to shape the Constitution as it is today?

3. What kind of laws have established constitutional principles?

4. What does the party system supply?

5. Where have powers of a modern British Prime Minister arisen?


THE BRITISH SYSTEM OF VOTING


The simple majority system of voting is used in the General Election in the UK. This means that the candidate with the largest number of votes in each constituency is duly elected, although he or she may not necessarily have received more than half the votes cast.

It is thought that this system favours two-party competition, particularly when the parties' support is concentrated geographically. It does not favour parties whose support is spread thinly and evenly across constituencies, as they tend to accumulate relatively small numbers of votes in each constituency and consequently do not win many seats. It is calculated that the Liberal Democrats are under represented in Parliament for this reason. Voting is by secret ballot.

Who may vote – All British citizens who are registered as electors by being resident in the UK may vote provided they are aged 18 years or over and are not legally barred from voting. Subject to the same conditions, citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic who are resident in Britain may also vote. British citizens living abroad may apply to be registered to vote for up to 15 years after leaving Britain. They may register to vote in the constituency in which they were last resident.

Who may not vote – The following people are not entitled to vote in parliamentary elections: The Monarch, members of the House of Lords; foreign nationals, other than citizens of Commonwealth countries and of the Irish Republic resident in Britain; people kept in hospital because of criminal behaviour; people serving prison sentences; people convicted within the previous five years of corrupt or illegal election practices; young people under 18.


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

1. What does the majority system of voting mean?

2. What parties does not this system of voting favour?

3. Who may vote?

4. Where may British citizens living abroad register to vote?

5. Who cannot vote?


STATE GOVERNMENT IN THE USA


Before their independence, colonies governed themselves separately under the authority of the British Crown. In the early years of the republic, prior to the adoption of the Constitution, each state was virtually an autonomous unit.

In general, matters that lie entirely within state borders are the exclusive concern of state governments. These include internal communications; regulations relating to property, industry, business, and public utilities; the state criminal code; and working conditions within the state. Within this context, the federal government requires that state governments must be republican in form and that they adopt no laws that contradict or violate the federal Constitution or the laws and treaties of the United States.

Like the national government, state governments have three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial; these are roughly equivalent in function and scope to their national counterparts. The chief executive of a state is the governor, elected by popular vote, typically for a four-year term (although in a few states the term is two years). Except for Nebraska, which has one legislative body, all states have a bicameral legislature, with the upper house usually called the Senate and the lower house called the House of Representatives, the House of Delegates, or the General Assembly. In addition to the previous usage, some states refer to the entire state legislature as the "General Assembly", with two houses therein. In most states, senators serve four-year terms, and members of the lower house serve two-year terms.

The constitutions of the various states differ in some details but generally follow a pattern similar to that of the federal Constitution, including a statement of the rights of the people and a plan for organizing the government. On such matters as the operation of businesses, banks, public utilities, and charitable institutions, state constitutions are often more detailed and explicit than the federal one. Each state constitution, however, provides that the final authority belongs to the people, and sets certain standards and principles as the foundation of government.


Ответьте на вопросы, основываясь на содержании текста.

  1. What is the exclusive concern of state governments?

  2. What does the federal government require from state governments?

  3. What are the branches of state governments?

  4. Who is the chief executive of a state?

  5. What are the constitutions of different states similar to?



ЧАСТЬ IV. TOPICS


ABOUT MYSELF


Let me introduce myself. My full name is Victor Andreevich Ivanov. I was born on 7 April 1989 in Saransk. I am not an only child in the family. I have also a sister. Her name is Olga. She is fifteen. She is a pupil of the tenth form of a secondary school.

I am a student of the Mordovian Ogarev State University. We have lectures and seminars at the University. We have classes of english too. During our english classes we read and translate texts, do different exercises, listen to the tape-recorder, watch video. At the University we learn a lot of useful and interesting things. But most of all I like the subjects of my future speciality.

I am always very busy, but when I am free I like to read books. My favourite writer is Ernest Hemingway. I have a lot of friends. I like to travel. My parents and I have visited many ancient Russian towns. I am on friendly terms with my parents. I like music, especially pop music. I am fond of pets, I have a dog and a cat. I am also interested in sport. I am a member of a tennis club.


OUR FAMILY


Our family is neither large nor small. There are four of us: my mother, my father, my brother and me.

My father is 47 years old. He is an engineer. He works in the office of an engineering company. He is always busy. He has very little free time. He likes his job and there are chances of promotion. He is a good looking man, tall and handsome. He is a quiet person.

My mother is a teacher of music. She works a lot. She does her house-work and I always help her. My mum is pretty and looks young for her age. She is always smart and elegant. She keeps our house perfectly.

My brother is 23 years old. He is a student of the Economics Faculty. He is not married yet and has no family of his own.

I have two grandmothers and one grandfather. I love them very much and often go to see them. One of them was a teacher, another was a doctor. My grandfather has not retired yet. When he has free time he likes to work in the garden.

We have many relatives. On holidays they often come to our place. We have a very good time together.


OUR INSTITUTE


We are the students of the Mordovian State University, its institute. Our institute was formed in 1994. About 5000 students study in it. The institute has 6 faculties where the qualified specialists work. The students are trained in 10 specialities.

For the studies there are well equipped laboratories, lecture halls, multimedia classes. The students study economics, philosophy, english, mathematics, law, statistics.

The graduates of the institute work in various departments.

The institute is housed in building №20. It's address is 63, Proletarskaya street, Saransk, Mordovia, Russia.

The director of the institute is Mrs Akhmetova.


MORDOVIA


Mordovia is one of the republics of Russia. It is situated in the eastern part of Central Russia between the Oka and Sura Rivers. Its area is 26200 square km. It's divided into 22 administrative regions.

The capital of Mordovia is Saransk. Saransk is the political, economic and cultural centre of Mordovia. It was founded in 1641 as a fortress. For a long time Saransk was a small, dirty town with no industry.

Now it is a beautiful town with parks and squares, museums and theatres. Saransk is famous for the Mordovian State University.

The population of Mordovia is about one million people. Mordovia is a multinational republic. The main nationalities are Russians, Mordovians and Tartars. The official languages in Mordovia are Russian, Moksha and Erzya languages. There are two ethnic groups: the Moksha and Erzya that are called Mordovians.

Mordovia has a wide range of industries: electrical, timber, cable, building materials, textile and light industries. As for agriculture it produces grain and sugar beet, there's also dairy farming.


SARANSK


Saransk is the capital of Mordovia. Its population is 350 thousand people. The city stands on the Insar river. Saransk is an industrial, cultural and scientific centre in Mordovia.

The city was founded in 1641. Before the revolution it was a small provincial town. For a long time it was a small, dirty town with no industry.

After the revolution the city changed greatly. New modern houses, wide green streets appeared recently.

Today Saransk is much more beautiful than ever before. It has become a well built city with lots of new large parks, gardens and museums.

Now it is a beautiful town with parks and squares, museums and theatres. Saransk is famous for the Mordovian State University.

We are proud of our capital which is growing and changing every year.


GREAT BRITIAN


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the Northwest coast of Europe. The UK consists of four parts. They are: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

The UK lies on the British Isles. There are 5500 islands. The two main islands are: Great Britain and Ireland. The west coast of the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, the east coast is washed by the North Sea. The area of the UK is some 244 000 km. Its population is over 57 million people. english is the official language.

Geographically Great Britain is divided into Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. Lowland Britain comprises Southern and Eastern England. Highland Britain includes Scotland, Wales, the Pennines and the Lake District, the highest mountain - Ben Nevis - is in Scotland. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of the north-west of Europe. The country is not very rich in natural resources.

There are many rivers in Great Britain. The Severn is the longest river, the Thames is the most important one.

London is the capital of the UK. It was founded by the Romans. The population of London is over 8 million people. The largest cities of Great Britain are: Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol.


LONDON


London is the capital of Great Britain. It is situated on the river Thames. London is one of the biggest cities of the world. Its population is more than 8 million people.

London is divided into three main parts: the City, the West End and the East End. The City is the heart of the business and financial life of the country. The West End is the part where rich people live. The main streets and squares, historical monuments and beautiful parks are in the West End. Theatres, clubs, museums, restaurants, shops and hotels are also situated there. The East End is the part of London where poor people, workers and dockers live.

There are many places of interest in London: Buckingham Palace - the residence of the Queen, Trafalgar Square with a tall Nelson Column in it, Saint Paul's Cathedral, the British Museum, the Highgate Cemetery where many famous people were buried,

Not far from the Houses of Parliament there is Westminster Abbey. It is a fine old building founded in 1409. Many great englishmen such as Darwin and Dickens are buried there.

Whitehall is the political center. The Houses of Parliament - the seat of the British Government- are situated here. There one can see a famous Clock Tower Big Ben, the symbol of London.


ECONOMIST


I'm a student of the Mordovian State University. In the near future I'll graduate from the University and become a professional economist. I think that the profession of an economist is very important nowadays.

At the University we are taught various general and special subjects, such as Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Accounting, Economic Theory, Computer Science, Business Ethics, Еnglish.

An economist needs some knowledge of the world outside his own country because both business and government are deeply involved in the world economy.

The graduates of the Faculty work at the educational institutions, various research centers and laboratories, in industry, business, banks, work for the government or are employed by various agencies and by military services.

The graduates work as bookkeepers, executive managers, financial managers. Some work as accountants.


LAWYER


I'm a student of the Mordovian State University. I study at the Law Faculty. I think the profession of a lawyer is one of the most important in state.

At the University we are taught various general and special subjects: Roman Law, Labour Law, Family Law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Civil Law, Criminal Law, Law of Procedure.

Lawyers have to solve many problems that still exist in our society. The duty of lawyers is not only to punish people for various crimes: hooliganism, murder, traffic violation and so on but they must do their best to prevent crimes, to fight against evil in our society.I

The lawyers protect the rights and legal interests of citizens, institutions and organizations. Not only professional lawyers but the representatives of the population hear all criminal and civil cases having equal authority.


MANAGER


I'm a student of the Mordovian State University. In the near future I'll graduate from the University and become a professional manager. I think that the profession of a manager is very important nowadays.

At the University we study various general and special subjects, such as Management, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Accounting, Economic Theory, Statistics, Computer Science, Business Ethics, english.

Our graduates work as managers: as an executive manager, a sales manager, a financial manager. Managers are responsible for their office workers. They should always do much: to take prices, to order goods and set the dates.

A manager should have such qualities as sense of purpose, sociability and creative activity. And of course, it is very important to know foreign languages, so we study english.

Managers can solve many problems and I hope I'll manage to make my contribution to this process.


РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА


1. Английский язык для студентов заочной формы обучения (гуманитарные специальности) / Л. В. Хведченя, О. И. Васючкова, Т. В. Елисеева и др. Минск, 1998.

2. Годуковская Л. В. Государственное устройство Великобритании: Учеб. Пособие по англ. яз. / Л. В. Годуковская, О. В. Леденева. М., 1996.

3. Качалова К. Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка / К. Н. Качалова, Е. Е. Израилевич. М., 1994.

4. Комаровская С. Д. Justice and Law in Britain: Учеб. Англ. Яз. Для юристов. М., 2001.

5. Ляпина Н. П. Английский язык: Учеб. Пособие для студентов юрид. фак. / Н. П. Ляпина, Д. П. Карпова, Т.А. Глухова. М., 1992.

6. Михайлова Е. Д. Устные темы по английскому языку для выпускников и абитуриентов. Brush up your english / E. Д. Михайлова, А. Ю. Романович. М., 2001.

7. Сальникова Л. В. Английский язык для менеджеров. М., 1992.

8. Сущинская С. И. Law and Business / С. И. Сущинская, И. И. Сущинский. М., 1999.

9. Шевелева С. А. Английский язык для юристов: Учеб. Пособие для вузов. М., 2000.

10. Шевелева С. А. Деловой английский. Ускоренный курс. М., 1997.

11. Just english. 101 Text on Law. Английский для будущих юристов: Учеб. Пособие для гуманитар, вузов / Ю. Л. Туманова, В. А. Королева-Мак-Ари, М. Л. Свешникова, Е. В. Тихомирова; Под ред. Т. М. Шишкиной. М., 2002.

12. Stevenson D. K. American life and Institutions. Washington, 1993.


СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

ВЫПОЛНЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ ЗАДАНИЙ И ОФОРМЛЕНИЕ КОНТРОЛЬНЫХ РАБОТ

ЧАСТЬ I. ECONOMICS

ЧАСТЬ II. LAW

ЧАСТЬ III. ADDITIONAL READING

ЧАСТЬ IV. TOPICS

РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА






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